The Republic of Azerbaijan has an existing transport infrastructure, which includes air, rail, highway, marine and pipeline transportation.
Azerbaijan is a major logistics centre, through which is passing the shortest way from Europe to Central Asia, the Middle and Far East, in particular transport corridor TRACECA and North-South road and rail routes connecting the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, in the same territory.
According to the State Statistics Committee in recent years, an annual average the vehicles have been transported through the Republic of Azerbaijan 177.8 million tons of cargo, 47.2% of which falls on the road transport, 15.3% - the railway, 6.6% - sea transport , 30.9% - of pipelines (including 18.2% - BTC, 1.8% - the South Caucasus Pipeline).
69% of all freight is carried by the private sector.
Railways: 2,944 km.
Highways: 59,141 km. 29 210 km of it - with hard surface.
- Air transport
The history of Air Transport of Azerbaijan started on October 20, 1910, when the first airplane flew over Baku. In 1923, it established the Transcaucasian Civil Aviation Joint Stock Company “ZAKAVIA”, and on June 2, 1938, the first air group was established in Azerbaijan. This date in 2006, was declared Day of Civil Aviation of Azerbaijan according to relevant decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev.
Today eleven regions of the country are connected by air with Baku. Over the past 20 years in the country's civil aviation has been invested over 200 million USD. This allowed to provide its fleet with modern aircrafts «Boeing-757”, to modernize air navigation system, to establish the system of training for twenty respective specialties, built in Baku and put into commission a modern international airport serving the aircrafts of more than sixty airlines. Currently airports awarded international status have built in five regional centres of the country.
In Baku Cargo Terminal (BCT) which was completed in 2005, and operating as a transit point, has been provided with all the conditions for the receipt of goods shipped from west to east and from north to south. State organization in the management and regulation of civil aviation is the Civil Aviation Administration of Azerbaijan (www.caa.gov.az).
- Azerbaijan Airlines
Azerbaijan Airlines (AZAL, АЗАЛ “Azerbaijan Airlines») are part of the “Azerbaijan Airlines” CJSC which is the largest airline and national carrier of Azerbaijan. “Azerbaijan Airlines” CJSC is a member of the International Air Transport Association (İATA). It is based in Baku.
AZAL provides passenger transport to Europe, CIS, Middle East and Asia. Direct flights are now open to cities of the CIS, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan, Simferopol, Tbilisi, Kiev, Yekaterinburg, Aktau. The company also carries out international flights from Ankara, Dubai, Kabul, London, Milan, Paris, Rome, Istanbul, Tehran, Tel Aviv, Urumqi.
In 2014, the year after the purchase of a new batch of aircrafts «Boeing» for further flight, it is planned to open permanent routes to North America and Southeast Asia.
More information about the company's activities and schedule of flights is available on the official website www.azal.az.
- Heydar Aliyev International Airport
Heydar Aliyev International Airport meeting the requirements of international standards is the main airport-based airline, is located in the north-east, 20 km from Baku the city, and connected to the city by two modern high-speed highways. Duty free shops (Duty Free) operate at the international airport located both in at point of arrival and point of departure. In the area Duty Free the purchases are paid by cards and in cash, in U.S. dollars, euros and Russian rubles.
In accordance with the order of the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev, in April 2011, Heydar Aliyev International Airport is under reconstruction. In April 2012, it was put into operation a new runway capable of accepting the most heavy and modern liners. Length of the new runway is 4000, width - 75 meters, and the area - 325 thousand 500 square meters.
Due to the reconstruction of the airport it has obtained even more modern image. The most modern equipment has been installed in the department for receiving the luggage of passengers arriving at the airport. At present, customs office of the airport complex has been reconstructed. All works are based on the latest achievements of science and technology, the necessary conditions for the convenience of passengers. Service area has been expanded and technically upgraded. The lighting system draws attention for its originality and modernity. Department of visas and passport registration also acquired a modern look.
A new equipment to fill the customs declaration in electronic form has been installed at the airport. Through the maps existing at the customs points of Azerbaijan, Baku passengers can get full information on tourism opportunities in our republic, hotels, subway stations, airports operating in the country and other matters which they are interested. New monitors have been installed in the complex and the number of exists has been doubled. Waiting areas have been significantly expanded, the quantity and the quality of services offered to passengers have been improved. Reconstruction has been carried out both in the south and in the north terminals. Upon completion of the restoration of Heydar Aliyev International Airport , it will have undoubtedly become one of the best airports in the world for the standpoint of convenience and technique.
Official site of the Heydar Aliyev International Airport: www.airport.az
- Rail transport
We would like to note that the Azerbaijan State Railway (ASR) was established in 1880. Currently, the total length of railways in Azerbaijan is 2944 km, the length of operating railways - 2122 km, including 815 km - double track line.
According to the “Program of Azerbaijan Railway for 2008-2011” the works on the design of high-speed railway line Baku-Georgian border with 503 km length, which is the central segment of TRACECA, have been implemented.
Particular importance is the construction of new railway section on the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway, 100 km, and the rehabilitation of the railway infrastructure of the Baku-Tbilisi-border with Turkey which will connect by rail area of Middle and Central Asia, through Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey with Europe. Trains which will come from China and Kazakhstan through Central Asia, the Caspian region, Baku and Tbilisi will be able to get to Istanbul, and then continue through the tunnel under the Bosporus to proceed to Europe.
- Baku Railway Station
The complex of buildings of Baku railway station consists of an old Tiflis station, built in 1884, the new building of the Baku-Passenger Station (60-70s of XX century) and Sabunchu station (1924), specially built for the USSR's first electric trains which had to carry the workers to the oil fields of Absheron (Baku-Sabunchi).
Station complex is in the centre of town, next to 28th May underground. International passenger traffic on the Baku-Moscow-Baku, Baku-Astrakhan-Baku, Baku-Makhachkala-Baku, Baku-Rostov-Baku, Baku-Tbilisi-Baku, Baku-Kharkov-Baku, Baku-Odessa-Baku, Baku -Tyumen-Baku, Baku-Novosibirsk-Baku routes is realized from here. Trains also make trips to Ganja, and electric trains to Sumgait city, Hovsan and Mardakan settlements.
Azerbaijan State Conservatory named after U.Hajibeyov, the National Bank of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev Palace are situated some distance far from the station complex.
Note that the realization of the tickets at the box office of the Baku railway station is also carried out through POS-terminals which allow the passengers to use bank cards such as Visa and MasterCard in case of payment.
More information about the activities of ASR, train schedules and fares are available at the official website www.railway.gov.az
- Maritime transport and offshore pipelines
The Azerbaijan State Caspian Marine Company (KASPAR) is a major ship owning company in the Caspian Basin. It is a diversified transport organization whose main activity is the transportation of goods with a predominance of oil and oil products. Navigation areas: Caspian, Black, Mediterranean and Marmara Seas. Strategies and priorities for the development of the shipping aim at making better use of the Eurasian Transport Corridor.
The main production base of the shipping company is a transport fleet consisting of 70 vessels, 30 of which are 34 tankers (water carriers), 26 universal cargo ships, and 2 roll on- roll-off(Rolker (from the English roll, American definition - RORO or ro-ro from Roll-on/roll-off) means a vessel for transportain of goods on a wheelbase: cars, trucks, railway wagons. Fundamental difference between this type of vessel is the horizontal load (usually from the stern of the vessel) through the nose or rear fold-up, called "ramp") and 8 marine rail cargo ferries, with a total deadweight of 316.0 thousand tons.
Today tanker capacity of Azerbaijan estimated 15-20 million tons of transported oil and oil products per year. The active development of ferry services on the lines of Baku-Turkmenbashi-Baku, Baku-Aktau-Baku is being planned.
- Baku Sea Port
The Baku International Commercial Seaport was founded in 1902 and since then it is the largest and most important port in the Caspian Sea. Equipped at the beginning of its operations with just a few wooden piers and a small number of dockworkers, the Baku Port is constantly developing for over a century, was the main sea gate of Azerbaijan and plays an important role in the trans-Caspian trade.
Port operates year round and is a vital reference in trade between Europe and Asia, which contributes to the TRACECA project - the revival of the Great Silk Way.
From April to November, while navigation in the Russian rivers the vessels can make direct voyage from Western European and Mediterranean ports.
Against the background of increasing the volume of trans-Caspian oil transport and import of oil equipment to Azerbaijan in the last decade Baku International Commercial Seaport has significantly strengthened its importance. Services provided to clients by the port include: processing of dry and liquid bulk cargo, handling of general and project cargo, handling of containers (including packing of / unloading), warehousing and storage of goods.
The Baku International Commercial Seaport includes the Main Cargo Terminal, Container Terminal, Oil Terminal Dubendi, Ferry Terminal and Passenger Terminal.
It is true that currently Seaport does not carry passengers. Perhaps they will be restored, with the introduction into service of the new Seaport.
For more details about the Baku seaport enter the official website www.bakuseaport.az
- Construction of a new International Commercial Seaport of Baku
In September of 2007, the Korean company «GSEngineering & Construction» presented to the Ministry of Transport of the final version of the construction project of a new seaport in Alat. Moving the seaport from the centre of Baku to Alat settlement should be realized by 2015. According to preliminary estimates, the construction of a new seaport would cost more than $ 400 million.
According to the project, the port will have 11 bridges- piers. The new port built to international standards, will be able to receive and process 11.6 million tons of cargo in 2015. In light of the emerging prospects it will be modern gate for access to the Great Silk Way.
- Road transport
The length of public roads in Azerbaijan is 24 981 km. 191 km of these complies with 4-band movement of road transport. Total road density in the country is 288 km/ 1000sq. km.
The road network is securely connected to all the cities, regional centres, towns, airports, seaports, railway stations, reservations, resort and tourist recreation areas, as well as border crossings with neighboring countries.
Main roads along which the interstate flow of vehicles with cargo and passengers is the Baku-Alat-Ganja-Gazakh-Georgian border (Azerbaijani segment of TRACECA corridor), 503 km long border with Russia, and the Baku-Astara-border of the Islamic Republic of Iran ( Azerbaijani segment of “North-South” corridor), with length of 521 km.
Road transport in Azerbaijan has been fully privatized. Transportation of passengers and goods are engaged mainly by the corporate enterprises and the private sector (companies and physical persons).
International transport of goods in the Republic of Azerbaijan and the transit through its territory to other countries make truckers of 40 countries of Europe and Asia. Azerbaijan has a passenger bus service to the cities of the Russian Federation, Georgia, Turkey and the Islamic Republic of Iran.
International passenger traffic carried by the Baku International bus station complex, located at the entrance to the capital. The rates, as well as the schedule of long-distance and international routes can be found at the official website www.mtrans.az.
- Baku metropolitan
Baku metropolitan began its activity on November 6, 1967. At present metropolitan consists of 23 stations, and its total length is 34,6 km. It has two lines with a compound structure of trains movement which can be conditionally divided into 5 routes.
In 2010 the construction of the second depot named after Ilgar Garayev was started near the station “Darnagul”, its opening is envisaged in 2014-2015.
The official website of Baku metropolitan: www.metro.gov.az